BRUSSELS — As President Biden and 29 different leaders of NATO walked into the alliance’s sprawling Brussels headquarters Thursday morning, they handed a graffiti-sprayed remnant of the Berlin Wall, a monument to Europe’s perception that it had received a everlasting victory over the nuclear-armed, authoritarian adversary that challenged the West all through the Chilly Battle.

Now, precisely one month into the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the temper permeating the extraordinary NATO summit assembly was a mixture of each worry and alternative.

The worry is that the aftermath of the invasion has quickly reworked Europe into two armed camps as soon as once more, although this time the Iron Curtain seems very completely different. The chance is that, 30 days right into a misbegotten warfare, Russia has already made so many errors that among the NATO leaders imagine that, if the West performs the subsequent section proper, President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia could fail at his obvious goal of taking all of Ukraine.

That doesn’t imply the Ukrainians will win. Their nation is shattered, hundreds of thousands are dispersed and homeless, and amongst leaders who gathered in Brussels there was a way of foreboding that the scenes of destruction and violence might go on for months or years. Nobody noticed an end result through which Mr. Putin would withdraw. As a substitute, there was concern he might double down, reaching for chemical, and even tactical nuclear, weapons.

However there was a stunning tenacity about taking over Mr. Putin — a way that didn’t exist broadly throughout Europe till the invasion started, and that has solely intensified since.

“I don’t assume we now have any selection,’’ Roberta Metsola, the president of the European Parliament, mentioned as Mr. Biden moved from NATO headquarters to the headquarters of the European Union in his day of emergency conferences. “We all know that any indecision or any variations might be exploited by Putin and his allies.”

Twice in the course of the collection of conferences, President Volodymyr Zelensky of Ukraine beamed in from his command put up in Kyiv, telling the others that regardless of how proud they’re of how they’ve stood as much as Mr. Putin, they haven’t achieved sufficient. Ukraine, he recommended, was combating a warfare for Europe — and one which Europeans, as a lot as Ukrainians, couldn’t afford to lose, as a result of Mr. Putin wouldn’t cease at Ukraine’s borders.

Mr. Zelensky reminded them {that a} month in the past — to the day — “I addressed you with a superbly clear, logical request to assist shut our skies. In any format. Defend our individuals from Russian bombs and missiles.”

However “we didn’t hear a transparent reply,” he mentioned, not sugarcoating his critique. “And also you see the results at the moment — how many individuals have been killed, what number of peaceable cities have been destroyed.”

The assembly was Mr. Biden’s thought, and it took some European diplomats unexpectedly, as a result of they needed to rapidly devise initiatives — from new sanctions to a declaration that they would supply chemical and organic safety gear to Ukraine — to sign that they didn’t simply speak about an issue.

Mr. Biden, talking to reporters later, mentioned his actual objective was to make sure that the stress he has constructed in opposition to Russia doesn’t fade.

“Look, if you’re Putin, and also you assume that Europe goes to crack in a month, or six weeks, two months — they’ll take something for one more month,” Mr. Biden mentioned. However he mentioned “the rationale I requested for the assembly is we now have to remain totally, totally, totally” agreed on fixed stress.

He even recommended expelling Russia from the Group of 20 industrial economies, a company that encompasses China, amongst others, and mixes democracies and authoritarian states. Even when Russia couldn’t be eliminated, he recommended, Ukraine must be added to the conferences, a transfer that might enrage Mr. Putin.

But it’s the early success of that stress marketing campaign that can also be creating the hazard.

Whereas the ostensible objective of the sanctions is to power Mr. Putin to withdraw from Ukraine, no chief who spoke on the sides of the assembly sounded as if there was a lot confidence that might occur. Fairly the alternative: the priority permeating NATO is that frustration, isolation and worldwide criticism will immediate Mr. Putin to accentuate the warfare.

That’s the reason a lot time was spent inside NATO headquarters debating how NATO may reply to an escalation — particularly the usage of chemical weapons, maybe to power Mr. Zelensky to desert Kyiv, the capital. Mr. Biden, requested repeatedly after the assembly about that response, dodged the query.

Jens Stoltenberg, the NATO secretary basic, has over the previous two days described the pressing want to offer protecting gear to the Ukrainians, and he mentioned that NATO nations would go on excessive alert for any atmospheric alerts that chemical weapons are being launched.

“Our prime army commander Normal Wolters has activated NATO’s chemical, organic, radiological and nuclear protection parts,’’ Mr. Stoltenberg instructed reporters, referring to Gen. Tod D. Wolters, NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, “and allies are deploying extra chemical and organic and nuclear defenses.” That has not occurred on this scale in trendy reminiscence, army consultants say.

Officers is not going to say what intelligence underlies the warnings that Mr. Putin may now flip to unconventional weapons — apart from the truth that he has achieved so earlier than, in opposition to exiled spies and dissidents. And the likelihood is being mentioned in public to discourage Mr. Putin from performing.

Few anticipated this hazard only a month in the past. Then once more, most assumptions from mid-February have crumbled.

Earlier than the invasion, NATO officers assumed the Russians have been unstoppable, that they’d surge throughout Ukraine in 30 days, seizing the southeast and the capital, in response to their very own warfare plan. Now, whereas few imagine that Ukrainian forces can win, there’s a widespread assumption that they could struggle Russia to a stalemate — stopping its advances across the capital.

The accepted preinvasion knowledge in Washington and a few European capitals was that Mr. Putin was a grasp tactician, and that he had “sanction-proofed” his financial system. At the moment it’s clear he left himself extremely susceptible, and is surviving on one main income stream: Europe’s dependancy to Russian fossil gas, the one import the continent has declined to dam up to now.

A month in the past President Biden’s speak of constructing democracy prevail over autocracy appeared like a gauzy ideological sheen surrounding his plans to tackle China. At the moment, as Mr. Biden acquired the leaders to endorse a brand new program to bolster different fragile democratic states nervous that they are going to be in Mr. Putin’s cross hairs subsequent, it has a unique which means.

Mary Ok. Brooks contributed analysis.


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