His issues about Chernobyl have been one cause he sought a seat within the Congress of Individuals’s Deputies, a physique Mr. Gorbachev created in 1989; he was elected to Parliament the next yr. After the August 1991 coup try, some parliamentary leaders have been compelled out, and Mr. Shushkevich was named the physique’s chairman.

After he was ousted by Mr. Lukashenko in 1994, Mr. Shushkevich grew to become a vocal critic of his successor, and of Mr. Lukashenko’s penchant for making pie-in-the-sky guarantees.

“If he can do all of it, he’s Moses,” Mr. Shushkevich informed The Occasions in July 1994. “However he isn’t. Solzhenitsyn stated that Vladimir Zhirinovsky” — a firebrand ultranationalist in Russia — “was the caricature of a Russian patriot. Properly, Lukashenko is the caricature of Zhirinovsky.”

Mr. Lukashenko, although, could have exacted a measure of revenge. The Times reported in 2002 that in 1997, he issued an government decree setting new charges and cost-of-living situations for pensions of state officers — apart from former chairmen of the Supreme Soviet, a membership that consisted of Mr. Shushkevich and one different man. In hyperinflation-prone Belarus, that hit Mr. Shushkevich onerous within the pocketbook.

His month-to-month cost “was once round $200,” Mr. Shushkevich informed The Occasions, “which is an efficient pension by our requirements.”

“Now,” he stated, “it’s 3,196 rubles. That equals $1.80.”

Along with his spouse, his survivors embrace a son, Stanislau, and a daughter, Alena.

Mr. Shushkevich continued to fireside away at his successor to the top. In certainly one of his final interviews, in December, he linked Mr. Lukashenko and Russia’s president, Vladimir V. Putin.

“Putin and Lukashenko are nonetheless sad with the autumn of the united statesS.R.,” he was quoted as saying. “They need to rule without end. This isn’t the best way to create a democracy.”

Milana Mazaeva contributed reporting.

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