After the Worldwide Legal Court docket (ICC) issued an arrest warrant for Russian President Vladimir Putin on March 17, many observers rapidly mentioned there was “little prospect” he would face justice. However whereas previous efficiency is usually no assure of future outcomes, trendy worldwide justice efforts truly are much more profitable than what many consider. If trendy historical past is a information, the ICC arrest warrant has dramatically modified Putin’s destiny.
The “trendy” period of accountability for heads of state and heads of army forces for genocide, crimes towards humanity, and battle crimes will be dated from United Nations (UN) Safety Council Decision 780 (1992) establishing the UN Fee of Specialists on the Former Yugoslavia. This was a significant step by the Safety Council to carry senior officers to account, and led to the institution of the primary trendy multilateral battle crimes tribunal underneath the Council’s Chapter VII authority a yr later.
Previous to the March 17 arrest warrant for Putin, some eighteen heads of state or heads of main army forces have been wished by worldwide justice—outlined right here, broadly, as severe multilateral efforts at accountability underneath customary worldwide legislation or treaty legislation for genocide, crimes towards humanity, and severe battle crimes. This listing contains officers wished by worldwide tribunals arrange underneath the Chapter VII authority of the UN Safety Council for Yugoslavia and Rwanda, by multilateral treaties such because the Rome Treaty that arrange the Worldwide Legal Court docket, by multilateral advert hoc courts arrange for Sierra Leone and elsewhere, and by home courts arrange with vital worldwide help and help as in Cambodia and Iraq. Many of those courts additionally sought the arrest of subordinate officers, with combined outcomes, however heads of state and main political or army leaders wished by worldwide courts have confronted justice far most of the time.
The popular results of worldwide justice advocates is a good trial and a verdict underneath the rule of legislation. An accused who seems earlier than a global courtroom counts as a “win” even when the result’s an acquittal. However sensible realities generally intervene, dealing out “tough justice” the place an accused reportedly commits suicide to keep away from being handed over to a courtroom, as occurred with Pol Pot in 1998, or is killed out of vengeance by those that misplaced relations and associates by the hands of a ruthless dictator, as occurred with Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.
Working within the subject of worldwide justice within the early Nineteen Nineties, my colleagues and I grew to become accustomed to being advised by diplomats and journalists that it was unimaginable that the previous Yugoslavia’s Slobodan Milošević, Radovan Karadžić, or Ratko Mladić; or Iraq’s Saddam Hussein would ever face justice. Ultimately, all of them did—and lots of others, as nicely. The atrocities get the headlines, whereas the work of activists, diplomats, investigators, prosecutors, and judges is sluggish, generally tedious, and at all times comes years later than it ought to. However the file of worldwide justice within the trendy period is certainly one of historical past’s most putting if least-recognized successes.
To make sure, Putin is at this time the president of a nuclear-armed state that at present holds a veto within the UN Safety Council. Thus, Putin has leverage that the eighteen different high officers on this listing didn’t. Nonetheless, the political wheels in Russia could flip as they did for lots of the officers on the listing under.
The doubtless shocking end result dealing with Putin needs to be knowledgeable by these statistics:
Of the eighteen males—all are males—wished previous to Putin:
- Fifteen have confronted justice of some variety earlier than a judicial tribunal.
- Two of the fifteen had been acquitted for lack of proof underneath less-than-ideal circumstances, however nonetheless appeared earlier than judges of the ICC and noticed the fees towards them dismissed.
- Two others of the eighteen confronted tough justice and had been killed or dedicated suicide earlier than they might be turned over to a global tribunal.
- Three of the eighteen turned themselves in voluntarily, of which two had the fees dismissed; the trial of the third continues to be underway.
- Just one of the eighteen main figures on this listing is nonetheless at massive.
In proportion phrases:
- 83 % of all heads of state and senior army leaders wished by worldwide justice have confronted justice.
- 94 % have both obtained the judgment of a global tribunal, been killed, or dedicated suicide previous to being turned over for worldwide trial.
- 17 % turned themselves over voluntarily, and two of these three accused had the fees dropped and at the moment are free; the trial of the third is underway.
- 17 % had been acquitted or had the fees dismissed.
- Of the seven who’ve died, 0 % died of their beds at dwelling as free males.
Thomas Warrick is a senior fellow and director of the Way forward for DHS Venture on the Atlantic Council. In 1993-1995, he was senior counsel to the chair of the UN Fee of Specialists on the Former Yugoslavia. From 1997-2001, he was the primary deputy within the US State Division Workplace of Struggle Crimes Points.
The creator thanks David J. Scheffer of the Council on Overseas Relations and Celeste Kmiotek of the Atlantic Council’s Strategic Litigation Venture for his or her help in filling out the entries on this desk.